Curiously, the word butler is thought to have derived from the term bottler. From the time of the Middle Ages through the mid-18th century, the English upper classes bought wine in barrels and then transferred… Continue reading


Used to describe a wine that has an AROMA and flavor reminiscent of butter. Buttery aromas and flavors in wine are the result of DIACETYL, which is a by-product of MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION.


A DRY to very dry Champagne or SPARKLING WINE containing less than 15 grams of sugar per liter (equal to 1.5% residual sugar). EXTRA BRUT is slightly drier than brut.


The small node on a grapevine shoot that carries within it the grape clusters for the year to come. In the early spring, these buds open, allowing the frail green SHOOTS and tiny clusters to… Continue reading


The act of grafting buds of one vine onto an existing planted vine. When buds from the scion variety are grafted onto the rootstock, the process is known as “field budding.”

Bulk Process

An inexpensive and quick way of making SPARKLING WINE. The bulk process, also called the Charmat method, involves placing wine in large, pressurized tanks for its SECONDARY FERMENTATION. In an alternative, and far more expensive,… Continue reading

Bulk Wine

Literally, wine not in a bottle. Wineries of all types, sizes, and levels of quality buy and sell wines in bulk. Some sell all of their production that way. Most large producers buy significant amounts… Continue reading


A plug for stoppering a wine barrel.




In the southern Austrian countryside, this is the name for a rustic restaurant that elsewhere is called a HEURIGE. A buschenschenk is easily identified by the buschenschenk (also the name for a swag of fir… Continue reading


A vine that is free-standing with no trellis system. In other words, it looks like a bush. Bushvines are also known as “head-pruned” vines and “goblet-trained” vines. Many of the world’s oldest vines are trained… Continue reading


Technically, bouquet refers specifically to the aspects of a wine’s scent derived from BOTTLE AGING (see AROMA).