A. Australia

B. Japan

C. New Zealand

D. South Africa


New Zealand is located midway between the equator and the South Pole, about 1,000 miles from Australia to the northwest. Due to the islands’ proximity to the International Date Line (IDL), New Zealand’s vineyards are the first to see the sun every day. The IDL, which was established in 1884, runs from the North to the South Poles, zigzagging to avoid cutting two nations into two different calendar days.


A. Bordeaux, France

B. Columbia Valley, Washington, USA

C. Mendoza, Argentina

D. Central Otago, New Zealand


Bordeaux, France. Bordeaux, about an hour’s drive inland from the Atlantic Ocean, is made up of relatively flat land. A rain shadow effect is the term used to describe the situation whereby a dry, often desert-like, side of a mountain rarely receives wind and rain. This occurs when the mountain range is high enough to block a rain-producing weather system from passing over to the other side of the mountain. Because of Bordeaux’s topography, a rain shadow effect is nonexistent. The other regions—Columbia Valley, Mendoza, and Central Otago—all experience rain shadow effect because they are all located on the side of the mountain that does not receive rain. They are in the “rain shadow.”


A. Corvina

B. Pinot Noir

C. Cabernet Franc

D. Sangiovese


While corvina and cabernet franc both grow in the Veneto region where Prosecco is made, the red grape of choice for Pink Prosecco will be pinot noir, which also grows there. Up until now, Prosecco has always been a white sparkling wine based 85% on the indigenous grape glera, with smaller amounts of the white grapes bianchetta trevigiana, chardonnay, perera, pinot blanc, pinot grigio, and verdiso added, plus the red grape pinot noir. The catch was that the pinot noir had to be made into a white wine before it could be used in the Prosecco blend. With the change in the DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata), pinot noir will be allowed to be made into a red wine which will then be allowed to be added to the blend, turning the Prosecco pink.


A. Château Margaux

B. Château Mouton-Rothschild

C. Château Lafite-Rothschild

D. Château Haut-Brion

E. Château Latour


Château Mouton-Rothschild was originally a Second Growth. But owner Baron Philippe de Rothschild petitioned the government for twenty years to have Château Mouton-Rothschild named a First Growth. In 1973, his hard work paid off, and his château was given the coveted status Premier Cru (First Growth). This classification system began when Napoléon III asked Bordeaux’s top château owners to rate their wines from best to worst for the Paris Universal Exhibition. They declined. The Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce became involved and ranked the wines on one quantitative measure: how much the wines sold for. This ranged from Premier Crus (First Growths) down to Fifth Growths. In the end, 61 châteaux were classified under the original 1855 Classification treatise —but there was one provision: it could never be revised. And, until Philippe de Rothschild came along, it wasn’t.


A. Cypress

B. Pomegranate

C. Olive

D. Pine


To make retsina, small amounts of resin from the Aleppo pine tree are added to savatiano grape juice as it ferments. Retsina’s distinctive piney flavor with a turpentine-like aroma is delicious when paired with many Greek meze (small appetizers served like Spanish tapas). Resinated wines have a long history in Greece: traces of pine resin have been found in Greek wine amphorae dating back to the 13th century B.C. Now, retsina is made all over the country, although most is made in Attica, the wine region that surrounds Athens.


A. Chardonnay

B. Ull de Llebre

C. Parellada

D. Xarel-lo


While Ull de Llebre (or “eye of the hare” in Catalan) is a Spanish grape grown in the Penedès, it is not a part of the seven grapes legally allowed to make cava. (It is, however, the local name for tempranillo). While chardonnay often adds finesse to cavas, the varieties macabeo, parellada, and xarel-lo are the most important. Macabeo is fruity and aromatic with good acidity. Parellada is the most delicate of these Spanish grapes and are often grown in higher, cooler vineyards. And you can thank xarel-lo for giving cava most of its personality by contributing good acidity and a generous, round body.


A. Provence

B. Burgundy

C. Alsace

D. Beaujolais


The wine Beaujolais (the region of the same name in France) is made using carbonic maceration. The process enhances fruity aromas and fruity flavors in the wine. This, along with gamay grapes, gives Beaujolais its distinctive and expressive fruitiness. During this process, entire clusters of grapes (often hand-harvested so that the clusters are rot-free and perfectly intact) are put whole into the fermenting tank. The grapes on the bottom, crushed by the weight of the grapes on top, release their juices, which immediately starts fermenting naturally due to wild yeasts on the grape skins, bathing the grapes on top in carbonic dioxide gas (a by-product of fermentation). Those top-layer grapes eventually explode from the pressure of CO2, exposing them to yeasts in the tank and thus causing them to ferment as well. Carbonic maceration could theoretically be used with any grape, but it is particularly successful with ultra-fruity grapes like gamay.


A. New Zealand

B. Chile

C. South Africa

D. Portugal


Phylloxera—a tiny, yellow, insect—has spread through much of the world, destroying vineyards in its wake as the insects feed on vines’ roots, ultimately sucking the life out of the plants. However, a phylloxera epidemic has not (some would say not yet) hit Chile. Secluded on the western coast of South America, Chile is hemmed in by the Andes Mountains to the east, the Atacama Desert to the north, and Antarctica to the south. The country’s physical isolation, dry climate, sandy soils, and use of flood irrigation all have helped protect against phylloxera.


A. Sur Lie Aging

B. Extended Maceration

C. Diacetyl

D. Barrel Fermentation


Sur lie is French for “on the lees,” and refers to the practice of leaving wine in contact with yeast lees (decomposed yeast cells). The broken-down yeast cells release proteins and other compounds that then interact with the wine. In particular, proteins will bind with tannins in the wine—a good thing since tannin can make white wine feel coarse. By aging a white wine sur lie, the impression of creaminess is heightened. Flavor compounds are also released by the lees, and wines aged for a long time sur lie can take on nut, bread, and yeasty flavors. Because they are heavier than the wine around them, yeast lees will slowly settle to the bottom of the barrel. Left packed together and undisturbed for a long time, they may form foul-smelling sulphur compounds. To prevent this, the lees are often stirred back up into solution—a process called bâtonnage in French. A wine may be left sur lie for weeks or months; it’s up to the winemaker.


A. Champagne

B. Bordeaux

C. Loire Valley

D. Burgundy


The Loire Valley of France, southwest of Paris. Coco Chanel, fashion legend and inventor of the little black dress (LBD), was born there in the village of Saumur. In the nearby village of Chinon, the peasant Joan of Arc presented herself to the Dauphin, later Charles VII, and asked to head his army.  And the valley’s majestic Château d’Ussé was the inspiration for Charles Perrault’s most famous books, Sleeping Beauty.