A. Chenin Blanc

B. Sauvignon Blanc

C. Pinot Blanc

D. Riesling


Before Prohibition, many of the most important vintners in the Napa Valley were German. Immigrants such as Jacob Schram, Frederick Beringer, and Charles Krug forged the first wine industry in the Napa Valley using the grape they knew best: riesling. Even by the 1940s when Stony Hill Winery famously planted the largely unknown chardonnay grape in the Napa Valley, riesling plantings were four times greater than that variety. Vineyard acreage devoted to riesling declined precipitously throughout California in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, but a new surge of excitement for the varietal means that plantings are once again on the upswing. Still, today, riesling plantings comprise just over 4000 acres in California; chardonnay, 95,000 acres.


A. On the north island of New Zealand

B. In western Virginia

C. On the “downs” of southern England

D. In the southeast corner of Arizona


Willcox, in Cochise County (Cochise was an Apache warrior chief), is an AVA (American Viticultural Area) in Arizona, and part of that state’s emerging wine country. The town itself, near the border with Mexico, has a population of about 3700. Numerous grape varieties are grown including petite syrah, sangiovese, syrah, grenache, tempranillo, and cabernet sauvignon. Approximately 70% of Arizona’s wine grapes are grown there.


A. The smoky-colored gray bloom of yeasts on the grapes

B. The mists that rise up from the Loire River where the river makes a turn and begins to head south

C. The slightly smoky character of the wine

D. The morning fog that settles in the pockets of many of the best vineyards


According to the renowned French ampelographer Pierre Galet (known as the “father of modern ampelography”), sauvignon blanc grapes in the Pouilly area of the Loire Valley in France are known by the synonym Blanc Fumé after the smoky-colored gray bloom of yeasts that grow on the grapes there. The grape Blanc Fumé gave rise to the wine’s name Pouilly-Fumé.


A. A heritage strain of yeasts used in the 18th century when Champagne as we know it began

B. The name of a Roman poet who wrote about the beneficial relationship between wine and the emotions

C. The name of a village that later became known as Puligny-Montrachet

D. A type of rot that can overtake botrytis cinerea in the vineyard, potentially devastating sweet wine production in the vineyard affected


Originally a Gallo-Roman village known as “Puliniacus,”  Puligny-Montrachet got its current name in the late nineteenth century. The wines of Puligny-Montrachet (poo-le-KNEE mon-ra-SHAY) are often considered the most ravishing chardonnays in the world. The tiny village (just 1,260 acres) sits in between two other great white wine villagesChassagne-Montrachet to the south and Meursault to the north. Before World War II, the village was also planted with wheat, blackcurrants, and mulberries.


A. Greece

B. India

C. Egypt

D. Georgia


Some of the world’s earliest sites of grapevine domestication and winemaking are in what is today the Republic of Georgia. (Similar sites are in present day Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan). Modern day wine regions throughout Georgia are planted with native varieties, like rkatsiteli and saperavi, as well as international varieties, like cabernet sauvignon.


A. A fungus that attacks any green part of the plant and damages the vine's shoots

B. A bacterial disease which is spread by an insect called a sharpshooter

C. A wilting of the vine caused by grape moths who feast on the leaves

D. A black rot which spreads after poorly handled vineyard equipment pierces the vine trunk


Pierce’s Disease, one of the most feared vine diseases, originated in the Americas and was initially called “Anaheim Disease” because it was first recognized in the southern California town of Anaheim in 1892. The sharpshooter is a leaf-hopping insect which transmits the disease while sucking out the fluid from a vine. Making sharpshooters particularly threatening are their ability to fly up to a quarter of a mile, survive cold winter temperatures, quickly build immunity to pesticides, and their tendency to appear in great numbers when they arrive.


A. Aroma

B. Odor

C. Scent

D. Smell


According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, although scent, smell, odor and aroma are often used interchangeably, those four words mean slightly different things.  Scent applies to the specific smell given off by a substance, an animal, or a plant. (As in: this cabernet franc has the scent of violets).  Smell implies solely the sensation without suggestion of quality or character. (As in: a unique smell wafted out of the glass). Odor may imply a stronger or more readily distinguished scent or it may be equivalent to smell. (A wine with a strong odor). Aroma suggests a somewhat penetrating, usually pleasant odor. (The aroma of zinfandel just beginning to ferment).


A. Le Mistral—a bracing spring wind that also dries out the air

B. Terres Blanches—white soils that combine chalk, limestone and clay

C. Sur Lie Aging—leaving the wine for a long time in contact with yeasts

D. Terra Rossa—a soil that combines sandstone and limestone with oxidized iron deposits


Terres Blanches. Terres Blances (“white earth”) is the name the French give to the soils in Sancerre’s western hills. That white earth drains well keeping the grapes from getting too plump in wet years, but it also holds moisture so that the vine has access to water in dry periods. By the way, Le Mistral is a wind common in the Rhône Valley, sur lie is sometimes used in nearby Muscadet to add roundness, and Terra Rossa soils are reddish, iron-rich soils that exist everywhere from Australia to Italy.


A. muscat, chenin blanc, and malbec

B. zinfandel, roussanne, and tempranillo

C. mourvèdre, muscat, and carignan

D. merlot, vermentino, and sangiovese


Mataro is the name that was sometimes used historically in California for the Spanish red grape mourvèdre. Zibbibo is the name used in Sicily and Italy’s other southern volcanic islands for the white grape muscat of Alexandria. In South Africa, steen is the local name for chenin blanc. And in northern Spain the red grape mazuelo (which is often used in Rioja where it is blended with tempranillo and garnacha) is what the French call carignan.


A. sense of creaminess

B. spiciness

C. smell

D. mouthfeel


A wine’s oral somatosensory property is to mouthfeel. Scientists have long known that while we may think we like a wine for its flavors (“like cherries,” “lemony” and so on), a key driver of our perceptions and preferences is how the wine feels.