A small aphid-like-insect that attacks the roots of vines belonging to the species VITIS VINIFERA. Phylloxera slowly destroys the vine by preventing the roots from absorbing nutrients and water. Native American vines, such as those belonging to the species VITIS LABRUSCA or Vitis riparia, tolerate the insect without adverse consequences. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, a phylloxera epidemic swept through Europe and eventually around the world. By the time a remedy was discovered, millions of acres of vines had been destroyed. That remedy, still the only known solution, was to replant each vineyard, vine by vine, with native American ROOTSTOCKS, then graft VITIS VINIFERA vines on top.