A. A type of Slovenian oak, commonly used to age wine in Croatia and Slovenia

B. Austrian slang for the contents of a spit cup

C. A white wine grape especially well-suited to volcanic soils in Hungary

D.  The bits of skin that cling to the insides of old amphora in which Georgia’s famous amber/orange skin-contact wines are made


Juhfark (YOU-fark) is a Hungarian white grape variety, most notably grown in the volcanic wine region of Somló in northwest Hungary. The name in Hungarian means sheep’s tail, referring to the elongated, cylindrical shape of the clusters. The wine itself is often made with skin-contact and has a complex flavor.


A. Etienne

B. Dominic

C. Pierre

D. Jean-Martin


Pierre. The term “Dom” is an honorific title for a monk. The word comes from the Latin dominus meaning “master.”


A. A French cream sauce for fish or asparagus

B. The French version of sauerkraut

C. A type of orange

D. A type of Mediterranean bird


When the Wine & Spirit Education Trust (WSET) recently surveyed 2000 Britons, 29% believed that the famous French sweet wine Sauternes was “a type of orange.” Twenty percent of respondents thought it was a beach resort. And seven percent thought it was a plant. It appears that wine education is not quite yet a fait accompli.


A. Beaujolais from the best single vineyards

B. Beaujolais that are aged for at least a year in French oak

C. Beaujolais from selected villages

D. Beaujolais from what historically have been the top producers (the “cru”)


Cru Beaujolais refers to wines from ten distinguished villages. (Interestingly enough, in most of the rest of France, the word cru refers to a vineyard.) Most of these villages are in the north of the region on steep granite hills. Cru wines are deeper, denser, more structured and more age-worthy than regular Beaujolais. The ten Cru are: St.-Amour, Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié, Brouilly, and Côte de Brouilly. Although Beaujolais Nouveau will be released next Thursday, we recommend you drink the far better Cru Beaujolais to celebrate the region.


A. Nutty flavored

B. Slow moving (as in a solera)

C. Gently rolling (said of a vineyard)

D. Intensely aromatic


The style of Sherry known as Oloroso takes its name from the word oloroso which means “intensely aromatic” in Spanish. Olorosos are long-aged Sherries that have been carefully exposed to oxygen. This darkens the wine to a rich, deep mahogany and imparts a flavor ten orders of magnitude more nutty than nuts themselves. Olorosos are potent and full-bodied Sherries with an unctuous feel on the palate. Try one from Lustau, Gonzales Byass or Hidalgo.



A. The names of the first female winemakers in the United States

B. The names of vineyards in Oregon

C. The names of the first women wine professionals in Britain to achieve the WSET diploma

D. The names of the first female Master Sommeliers in the United States


Many of the top vineyards of the Willamette Valley in Oregon are named after women who have been inspirations in the industry. Helen, Louise, Jessie and Eileen and Marjorie are all vineyards that belong to Cristom. Nancy’s vineyard honors Nancy Ponzi of Ponzi, and Elizabeth’s is named after David Adelsheim’s daughter.   


A. France

B. The United States

C. China

D. Chile


In fact, China has 148,263 acres (60,000 hectares) of cabernet sauvignon, about 20% more than the number two country France with 118,611 acres (48,000 hectares). Chile came in third at 106,255 acres/43,000 hectares and the U.S was fourth with 101,313 acres/41,000 hectares. OK, we’ll stop the list here since the next country is behind by 40%. Source: 2017 OIV (International Organization for Vine and Wine) Report.


A. It was the name of the family who made the first sparkling wines in Champagne’s Marne Valley

B. It was the name used by the Romans, referring to the chalky and limestone soils of the region

C. The name is derived from Latin words for the countryside around the city of Reims

D. Champagne was an early name for the ancient observation that crushed grapes would produce a liquid that bubbles


The name Champagne was first used in the sixth century and is derived from campagnia remensis, a Latin term for the countryside around the city of Reims. There is only one appellation in Champagne—Champagne—but the region encompasses five main vineyard areas: Montagne de Reims,  Côte des Blancs, Vallée de la Marne, Côte de Sézanne, and Côte des Bar (also known as Aube).


A. 100% of the grapes were grown in Napa Valley and the grapes were vinified in the Napa Valley

B. 75% of the grapes were grown in the Napa Valley and the winery is located in the Napa Valley

C. 85% of the grapes were grown in the Napa Valley

D. 100% of the grapes were grown in the Napa Valley; all of those were vinified in the Napa Valley and the winery is located in the Napa Valley


The Napa Valley AVA (American Viticultural Area) was established in 1981 and was the first AVA in California. Like all AVAs, it is governed by federal regulations set forth by the Tax & Trade Bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. Those regulations stipulate that if an AVA is listed on a wine label, 85% of the grapes used for that wine must come from that AVA.


A. Beer makes you fat

B. Beer makes you burp

C. Beer isn’t as sexy as other beverages

D. Beer’s flavors are too predictable


Ok, we know it’s supposed to be a wine quiz, but who doesn’t like an occasional beer (question)? In any case, for the survey, Bank of America/Merrill Lynch surveyed 1,000 millennials in the U.S. and the U.K. Of those surveyed, 27% said they were ditching beer. And the number one reason? Because “it makes you fat.” Millennials appear to be cutting back on alcoholic beverages of all kinds, with beer being hit harder than either spirits or wine.


A. Rioja Alavesa

B. Rioja Alta

C. Rioja Oriental

D. Rioja Centro


OK, we just made up Rioja Centro. Rioja is divided into three subregions: Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Oriental (formerly known as Rioja Baja). What are generally considered to be the finest tempranillo grapes come from the Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa which, being higher and farther north and west, toward the Atlantic, experience a cooler climate. The land then slopes downward to the warmer, lower, drier Rioja Baja in the southeast—the only part of Rioja that experiences a more Mediterranean climate. Grapes there (often garnacha in addition to tempranillo) make wines that tend to be higher in alcohol and lower in acidity.


A. Aromas and flavors that come at the end of a sip, right before you swallow or spit the wine

B. The three main aromas/flavors in any given glass of wine; these are the most important aromas and flavors to pay attention to

C. The aromas/flavors in a wineglass that hover in the airspace above the wine before the wine is swirled

D. Aromas/flavors that result from aging a wine


When analyzing wine, professionals often split aromas/flavors into three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary aromas and flavors come from the grape itself or natural factors in the vineyard. Pinot noir, for example, often displays the primary aromas/flavors of red cherries, strawberries, and a certain earthiness. Secondary aromas and flavors come from winemaking. The smell and flavor of oak in chardonnay is a secondary aroma/flavor that results from fermentation or aging in oak barrels. Similarly, the aroma and flavor of bread dough in Champagne is a secondary aroma/flavor that results from long aging on lees. Tertiary aromas and flavors are those that come from time. After, say, ten years, a great cabernet sauvignon no longer smells or tastes simply of cassis or other primary aromas/flavors. It takes on almost impossible-to-describe aromas and flavors that result from molecules in wine coalescing over time into whole new compounds.


A. Chenin Blanc

B. No other grapes are grown; Sancerre can only be made from sauvignon blanc

C. Pinot Noir

D. Auxerrois


Yes, red Sancerre exists and it’s made from pinot noir. Although, most Sancerre today is made from sauvignon blanc grapes, that was not always the case. Before the phylloxera epidemic in the 19th century, the leading grapes in Sancerre were chasselas (a white grape also grown in Switzerland) and pinot noir. After phylloxera, growers replanted with sauvignon blanc (a high vigor variety) and by the 1930s, it was the area’s dominant grape. Pinot noir was also replanted after phylloxera, and today is experiencing a resurgence in Sancerre.


A. Margaux AOC, Bordeaux

B. Sauternes AOC, Bordeaux

C. Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC, the Rhône

D. Vosne-Romanée AOC, Burgundy


In 1936, Châteauneuf-du-Pape became the first Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée in France. In the wake of phylloxera and World War I, France’s AOC system was created to improve quality standards in that country. The Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC authorized 13 grape varieties to be used in the appellation, among many other regulations and specifications.


A. A popular cocktail first invented in Shanghai (and purported to have health benefits) combining Prosecco and an extract from lily flowers

B. An ancient type of wine once made from sun-dried grapes in Sicily

C. A rare cross of chardonnay and another French grape, soon to be used in some white Bordeaux

D. A newly discovered Vitis labrusca (American) grape variety that grows on the Eastern seaboard and is related to concord


Liliorila (li-lee-OR-i-la) is a cross between chardonnay and the southwestern French variety baroque. It was developed in France in 1956, and makes low acid, powerfully aromatic wines. Until recently, liliorila was virtually extinct. But its fortunes are changing thanks to climate change. It is now one of the varieties awaiting approval as an officially permitted grape variety for basic white blends in the appellations Bordeaux and Bordeaux Superiéur.


A. A crisp white wine from vineyards surrounding Lake Constance near the Swiss-Austrian border

B. A full-bodied red wine made from grapes native to Lebanon

C. A sweet wine from Constantia winery in South Africa

D. A fortified wine from the medieval Constance monastery in eastern France; the wine is thought to have medicinal benefits


Vin de Constance is a dessert wine from South Africa. The celebrated wine was produced in the nineteenth century at Constantia Winery in Cape Town. Founded in 1685, Constantia winery was one of the first wineries in the country. The luscious dessert wine, made from muscat blanc à petite grain grapes, was one of the most sought-after dessert wines in Europe―favored by emperors and kings (Napoléon Bonaparte and King Frederick the Great of Germany) and famous authors and poets. Today, the extraordinary wines are still produced at Groot Constantia and Klein Constantia wineries.


A. A shiraz made with stems, giving it a slightly bitter, smoky character

B. A clone of pinot noir with an earthy tobacco character that was imported to Victoria from France in the 18th century

C. A strip of limestone soil in South Australia on which cabernet is planted

D. Historically, the time after dinner when Australian men (minus any women) would retreat to another room to smoke and drink Australian “port”


The “cigar” refers to a famous nine-mile long strip of soil in Coonawarra (Aboriginal for “honeysuckle”) on the Limestone Coast of South Australia. The soil (called terra rossa) is a reddish colored mixture of porous clay soil and limestone. It is considered (along with Western Australia’s Margaret River) one of the best places in the country for cabernet sauvignon. These cabernets are often full of black currant and something green, like chaparral. Australian producer Yalumba makes a cabernet sauvignon called “The Cigar” as a tribute to the region.


A. A historic style of sweet wine made in Mâconnais

B. An appellation in France where sauvignon blanc grapes are grown

C. A white grape variety grown in Jura, France

D. An appellation in France where chenin blanc grapes are grown


Made in the middle of the Loire Valley, Savennières (pronounced sa-ven-YARE) is a densely flavored dry white wine made from chenin blanc grapes. The best Savennières wines have such intensity, grip, minerality, and taut acidity that they can be aged for decades. Savennières is terrific with dishes full of vegetables, as well as with seafood.


A. The official name of Prosecco

B. The name for Proseccos that have been aged an additional two years in bottle before release

C. A more highly ranked Prosecco that comes from vineyards in a small special area

D. Prosecco made in two of the most famous villages in the province of Friuli


Ok, this was a tough question, but here’s the scoop: Much of the Prosecco that’s made is simply basic Prosecco DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata) that comes from large swaths of flat land in northeastern Italy. Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco Superiore is a higher ranked, higher quality Prosecco DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita). It is higher ranked because it comes from an historically special terroir—namely, a small zone of high-elevation hills in and around the towns of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene in the region of the Veneto (not Friuli). Yes, it’s a very long name but Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco Superiore is actually easy to pronounce: con-KNEE-lee-anno  Val-doe-bee-AH-di-nay  Pro-SEC-oh  Su-pair-ee-or-AY.