A. A bitter, greenish jelly made from a tropical fruit that Australians spread over cheese and toast

B. A mixture of spinach, cabbage, and lima beans that is puréed and often served in Australian school cafeterias

C. A type of nut butter made from nuts and peas that is popular in Australia

D. A spread made from brewer’s yeast that was a favorite of Australian soldiers during World War II 


Vegemite, one of the most popular Australian foods of the 20th century, was invented in 1922 in Melbourne by a food manufacturing company named Fred Walker. A spread made from brewer’s yeast (and hence a strong source of B vitamins), vegemite was slow to catch on at first. But intense promotional efforts (including a limerick competition with compelling prizes such as Pontiac cars) propelled the spread to fame. During World War II, the Australian Army purchased huge quantities and it became immensely popular among soldiers, especially after rations of the British spread Marmite became scarce. Vegemite received official product endorsement from the British Medical Association in 1939. By 1942, it was said to be in every kitchen in Australia.


A. Short aging in American and French oak

B. Long aging in large concrete tanks

C. The traditional solera method

D. Long aging in American oak


The signature of Rioja wines is long aging in oak barrels, usually American oak. The story starts in 1780 when a Rioja winemaker named Manuel Quintano adopted the Bordelaise method of aging wine and began maturing his wine in large French oak casks. Oak casks transformed his wines in a way Quintano had never anticipated. Over time, it became apparent that the new “technology” of small oak barrels would prove more economical if oak trees from North America were shipped overseas and the wood was coopered into small barrels in Spain. Today, there are two philosophies about oak when making Rioja wines. The traditionalists tend to use American oak and to cooper that oak in Spain. Modernists do the opposite: they tend to use brand-new French oak that was coopered in France.


A. Both terms are synonymous for a wine’s overall smell

B. Aroma is used to describe the smell of an old wine and bouquet is used to describe the smell of a young wine

C. The bouquet of a wine is its initial smell when it is first poured into a glass; the aroma is the smell associated with a wine that has been aerated

D. Aroma is used to describe the smell of a young wine and bouquet is used to describe the smell of an old wine


Contrary to common belief, aroma and bouquet are not synonymous terms. Aroma is used to describe smells associated with a young wine. Bouquet, on the other hand, describes the smell of a wine that has been aged for a considerable period of time, and thus all of the early smells have evolved and coalesced. Bouquets (unlike aromas) are almost impossible to describe.


A. The fact that classic methods and classic varieties are used to produce the wine

B. The fact that the wine was once reserved for the nobility of Florence

C. The fact that the region was the historic center of Chianti production

D. The fact that the wine is tasted by a panel of experts who certify its quality and character as being top level or “classic”


The Chianti Classico is the original, small, hilly, central area in which the richest, fullest Chianti is produced. The uniqueness of the region was underscored when it was given a DOCG, or Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita, of its own in 1984. The very best Chianti Classicos have plum and dried cherry flavors and sometimes a touch of salt and spice.


A. The name given to the wine districts north of Vienna during the Austro-Hungarian Empire

B. An ancient Greek settlement along the coast of Turkey which was an important center for the production of amphoras

C. A sweet South African wine that was once a favorite among European nobility

D. A place in historic Constantinople renowned as one of the ancient world’s top winegrowing districts


Constantia is a sweet, muscat-based South African wine that was at one time the most sought-after dessert wine in all of Europe. The small district of Constantia, situated just south of present-day Cape Town in South Africa, was settled by Dutch colonists in the 1600s. The wine district was so established that by the 1700s, Constantia wine had become renowned among the nobility throughout Europe. It was reportedly never absent from the table of King Frederick the Great of Germany, and even Napoleon Bonaparte ordered Constantia by the case.


A. Horse manure

B. Rotten eggs

C. Rancid butter

D. Wet cardboard


Manure-like smells are often associated with brettanomyces, called brett for short. This genus of yeast can rob wine of its fruity aromas, replacing those with manure, horse blanket, barnyard, or sometimes Band-Aid scents. However, while many winemakers—especially in the New World—abhor even the faintest whiff of brett and will scrupulously clean their wineries to prevent brett from growing, other winemakers find a faint suggestion of brett aromas attractive as part of an otherwise complex wine.


A. Crete

B. Attica

C. Thessaly

D. Santorini


Santorini is a volcanic island south of Athens that is famous for vinsanto, a sweet dessert wine reminiscent of the Tuscan dessert wine vin santo. To make vinsanto, the white grape assyrtiko and the red grape mandilaria are first spread out on mats to dry in the sun for one to two weeks. When they achieve a state referred to as half-baked, the grapes are fermented. Afterward, the wine is aged in barrel for a decade, giving it a mellow, rich flavor.


A. Malvasia

B. Merlot

C. Canaiolo

D. All of the above


While Chianti mostly consists of sangiovese, Tuscany’s most-planted grape variety, both red and white grapes are used in blending. A basic modern formula for Chianti can be anywhere from 70% to 100% sangiovese; no more than 10% canaiolo; and no more than 15% “other authorized reds” like cabernet sauvignon and merlot. The white grapes malvasia and trebbiano can still be used (although they rarely are) for up to 10% of the blend.


A. The medieval French word for a small village, similar to the Old English “burg” 

B. A nomadic German tribe which once settled in the area

C. The Latin word Burgarius which was the name for a Roman province that once extended over most of central France

D. The early French rural governing bodies which were made up of noble councilmen known as Burrs


The name Burgundy dates back to the 6th century when a barbaric, wandering Germanic tribe known as Burgondes established a settlement in central France after the fall of the Roman Empire. They called the region Burgundia. However, even before the region was named, grapes grew in Burgundy. The area’s first documented vineyard was planted in the village of Meursault in the first century A.D.


A. Madrid

B. Vienna

C. Naples

D. Rome


Answer: B. Vienna, located along the Danube River in northeastern Austria, is the only major city in the world that is a commercially significant wine region. Within the city limits there are over 1,700 acres of grapes, of which about 85% are dedicated to white grape varietals. All vines fall under a government protection program lest developers be tempted to put such valuable real estate to more profitable uses.