Carbonic maceration is primarily used for the production of fruity red wines.
Carbonic maceration can lead to very juicy, fruity wines with almost candied flavors—a wine drinker’s flashback to bubble gum and strawberry Kool-Aid. The carbonic process involves whole clusters of grapes being loaded into a vat which is then sealed, and CO2 gas is pumped in, replacing any oxygen. All of the grapes in the tank begin to ferment from the inside (intercellular fermentation) in the anaerobic environment. Under this tremendous pressure, they burst open, releasing their juices. At this point, yeasts take over and finish the job.