AxR1 was the notorious rootstock that lead to financial disaster in Napa and Sonoma, California, in modern times. The rootstock’s name is an abbreviation of “Aramon crossed with Rupestris Ganzin No. 1.” Aramon is a grape that belongs to the European species Vitis vinifera and rupestris is a reference to the American species Vitis rupestris. (As an aside, rupestris is also known as St. George after a town in the south of France where it was popular). Ganzin was the man who crossed the two and created the rootstock. Although it was widely recommended in California in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, AxR1 proved to be susceptible to phylloxera, ushering in a devastating second wave of the disease in the state in the 1980s. Today, virtually all California vines are planted on rootstock that is truly phylloxera-resistant.