American vine species that generally produces wines that are far less sophisticated and complex than VINIFERA varieties. In particular, LABRUSCA grapes are easily recognizable by their pungent, candy-like aroma and flavor, usually described as FOXY. Concord, for example, is a grape variety that belongs to the species VITIS LABRUSCA. Over centuries, many American species have hybridized by chance. In addition, from 1880 to 1950, plant scientists in both France and the United States intentionally created HYBRIDS by crossing VINIFERA varieties with hardier, more disease- and pest-resistant American varieties. While their use for wine is declining, HYBRIDS remain critically important as ROOTSTOCKS. Two other North American vine species are Vitis riparia and Vitis rotundifolia. Although no well known wines are made from these species, they are very resistant to PHYLLOXERA and so are frequently used for rootstocks. French/American HYBRIDS such as baco noir are also made with these species.